#1 Camera Angles
Used When telling the audience where the film is set. This lets you show all of the important information.
Used most commonly in the cinema. It is used to show any character interaction.
When showing the audience something/someone important.
Generally refers to visual errors. In very basic terms it means having a character in a red top one second and a blue top the next.
#4 Cutting (editing)
Vital, otherwise films would be in real time and would never end. It allows director to change locations and the main use is to either add pace to a scene to make it exciting or to slow it down for dramatic emphasis.
The way something is made up, so it could be how the background of a scene is put together or the way the film is edited together.